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What is an IoT Router?

IoT Dual SIM Card Routers and connectivity
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Within the world of the Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity is of the utmost importance. But it’s crucial to understand the difference between commercial-grade routers and IoT routers – especially if your business relies on IoT.

This post explores the differences between commercial and IoT routers, the role IoT SIM cards play in connectivity, and why mobile connectivity is vital in 2023.

Keep reading to find out more.

What is a router?

First and foremost, we need to understand what a router is.

Routers are products and devices that are commonly used at home and in business for connecting devices on local area networks (LAN), securely and cost-effectively to a variety of wide area network (WAN) infrastructure types – such as national PSTN/ISDN/IP or GSM networks.

In these settings, LAN connections are most often provided through wired ethernet, or wirelessly through local Wi-Fi.

Therefore, routers are used to provide user-based connections for business offices, retail stores, homes and domestic properties, housing associations, and care homes.

This is most typically for devices such as work computers, phones, tablets or attended specialist devices that rely on typical standard LAN protocols; for example, such as handheld payment terminals or till systems.

They are also used for connecting site services, like security cameras, CCTV, vending/ticket machines and self-service kiosks.

It’s crucial to understand that a commercial router does not provide the same security as an IoT router, especially for IoT applications.

What are IoT Gateways?

IoT Gateways are similar to routers but are more specialised.

Cellular IoT Gateway routers are smart internet gateways that provide IoT devices and sensors with a secure and managed local internet connection to a WAN. This is done by levering the cellular WAN connections on the gateway router.

They act as a network router, sending and routing data between IoT devices and the cloud.

IoT gateways are designed for better connecting standalone sensing objects or devices which require the use of low power local networks, such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), ZigBee, Z-Wave or LoRa-WAN. These devices often need to preserve the longevity of power for battery powered or low voltage IoT devices and sensors.

Typical types of devices include alarm systems, environmental/motion sensors and wearables.

Having secure remote configuration is essential for devices that require an IoT router, as they have little scope for on-site human intervention. They tend to be managed by IoT platforms that are specially designed for managing IoT gateways and IoT sensors.

Do I need an IoT Router?

It may be unnecessary for a smart home to install an IoT router, but if your business works within the IoT industry or a sector that needs and uses IoT technology then installing one is essential.

Having secure and managed network connectivity is vital to any business that uses IoT, as it is important to ensure the security and integrity of the data being sent and received.

IoT routers are especially important for businesses operating in industries such as manufacturing, transport and logistics, energy and utilities, healthcare or retail; all of these are areas where using an IoT gateway router can prove hugely beneficial.

However, with cybersecurity gradually becoming more regulated and legislated, it could become more commonplace to see more secure hardware in homes around the globe.

What is an IoT Modem?

IoT Modems are the chipsets or integrated components that IoT gateways use for connecting to a variety of WAN networks.

They provide an efficient and easily configurable set of control commands using standards, such as AT (Attention) commands which are used by devices to control GSM modems.

Routers also use Modems, but IoT versions can be more specialised or low power versions depending upon the intended context.

Handheld POS terminals also often rely on short-range wireless connectivity solutions, such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth.

Increasingly, they incorporate mobile GSM to benefit from independence from unique site contexts or unsecure local networks and to provide maximum range flexibility.

Why are IoT Routers Important?

Connectivity is of the utmost importance for IoT devices, as they cannot afford downtime and must remain secure. IoT Gateways offer a reliable and secure connection to the cloud, allowing data from devices to be transmitted without interruption. 

With IoT devices, even a fraction of downtime can be detrimental to an operation and come with extraordinary cost. That’s why having multiple connectivity options is a factor that cannot be overlooked.

Moreover, they enable businesses to have remote control over their devices, allowing them to configure settings remotely or diagnose issues quickly. This reduces the time and cost of having to physically attend the site.

Secure managed IoT connectivity is crucial for any business using IoT devices, as it ensures the integrity of the data being transmitted and received. By investing in an IoT Gateway, businesses can guarantee a reliable and secure connection to their networks, and hold more control over connectivity and related costs.

Due to the nature of their connected devices, IoT routers offer more specialised IoT support – especially when compared to commercial routers. If you are to come across any issues with the router, the manufacturer of an IoT router will be able to provide greater support and assistance. 

What role do IoT SIM Cards play with IoT routers?

For business-critical applications, any Wi-Fi option needs to provide a secure and manageable connection. If set up incorrectly, a simple local configuration change could render devices unable to communicate or be open to malicious or fraudulent interception. 

Positioning of Wi-Fi routers also needs to cover all required spots in the building. This can be more of a problem for providers who lack the IT skills or control the premises in their entirety.

For these reasons, service providers are now using IoT SIM Cards as the primary or secondary forms of communications for many of their router and IoT gateway devices. This is increasingly the back-haul mechanism for Wi-Fi routers.

This provides the best of both worlds in terms of reach but also provides multiple forms of communication resilience. Enabling portable and static devices and systems to secure their critical connectivity and eliminate single points of failure.

For deployment simplicity and resilience, most rely on secure multi-network mobile connectivity, providing geo-resilience in deployment and for a maximum combination of service up-time and deployment flexibility.

Greater security and connectivity with IoT SIM Cards

Multi-network systems enable devices to communicate using any of the locally available mobile radio mast access networks. For example, in the UK, this would mean EE, Vodafone, O2 and 3; or a subset of these depending upon price and availability.

This provides maximum geographic flexibility for national deployments and the ability to communicate using whichever local radio network is the strongest or most available in terms of data throughput.

Normal consumer SIMs do not allow this and are fixed to one provider. This means that if a signal from a network provider is poor in a location or attenuated due to building conditions, or is suffering a local or national outage, then a device loaded with an IoT SIM card can hop to another network.

To work reliably, however, it is important to select devices that can intelligently select the most appropriate network for their needed type of communications based on network availability.

Gateway devices are manufactured with integrated modems which support a variety of GSM radio frequencies and protocols for certain types of mobile communications.

If, for example, the device modem only supports 4G LTE communications and not 2G or 3G, but the strongest signal available is a 2G one, then the device is (as many are) configured in firmware to select the strongest signal (dBm) would therefore select the very low or no data 2G network option, when a slightly lower strength 4G signal with higher data bandwidth network is available.

It is not unknown for devices to hang onto these 2G networks, as devices will usually only switch if the 2G network signal strength (dBm) drops below a certain threshold. This can be particularly catastrophic as the device may never have cause to try another network.

For multi-network IoT SIM cards to work effectively, it is therefore imperative that manufacturers configure their network selection processes in consultation with IoT SIM card providers and experts.

Dual SIM options for IoT routers

Multi-network IoT SIM cards deliver significant resilience over single-network SIM card performance for gateway or edge systems.

However, as a guide, switching core networks can take anything from 15 seconds to well over a minute. It is, therefore, best to only switch SIM slots under known and controlled circumstances; i.e. when a catastrophic connection failure is detected and verified by the device.

As an alternative, Dual modem/SIM options are also available which can connect to two networks simultaneously for maximum temporal resilience.

Multi-network SIM cards

Multi-network SIM cards provide access to all radio access mobile networks locally available. The signalling pathways for all traffic over these networks must, however, be authorised by a single IoT roaming agreement provider using their core infrastructure and Home Location Register (HLR).

The highest quality systems are designed for high resilience and geo-redundancy while being supported by sophisticated Network Operation Centres (NOC). 

But, it’s important to note that even the highest quality systems can sometimes suffer temporary outages or suffer service degradation during pre-warned maintenance windows.

Two SIM slots in devices

If the core systems are interrupted for some reason (although rare), then data sessions cannot be authorised. 

Two SIM cards by two different and discrete IoT core infrastructure roaming providers, therefore, offer the potential for complete end to end and temporal resilience, as it is highly unlikely that both network roaming provider’s core infrastructure would degrade at exactly the same time.

For the absolute maximum possible theoretical levels of resilience, two IoT Multi-Network SIM cards can be used as the primary/back up, independently or in conjunction with Wi-Fi or wired LAN communications. 

This, however, requires intelligent dual SIM support in the terminal hardware and intelligent dual SIM capability and network selection to be implemented within the device’s hardware and firmware.

It may also require remote configuration for the client to select their preferred parameters. For example, implementing a Dual SIM approach means the hardware and firmware of the device must support and manage the utilisation of both SIM cards.

Logistical issues with dual SIM

In some cases, two SIM slots may be supported in the hardware, but this does not mean that the device manufacturer has implemented the firmware to support both. 

They may not have also implemented software that intelligently manages switching between the two SIM cards based upon fully thought through real life scenarios. Thus, switching SIM cards unnecessarily could create problems. 

It is important for the device to not only make informed decisions in-session and between sessions, but also to ensure that the device is monitoring and selecting networks in-between transactions or during device downtimes. Through this, it ensures that the device is connected and ready for use as soon as it is needed for transactions.

Any loss of a particular network would therefore be dealt with proactively and in advance of the service being interrupted. 

For example, implementing heartbeats can mean that any significant network problems can be dealt with proactively, but also based upon the surety of an appropriate number of retries before SIM switching.

Having a sophisticated implementation also means that the data plans for each SIM card become more predictable and creates a more cost-effective cost plan environment for each.

Where a dual SIM hardware/firmware option does exist, it is important, therefore, to test the functionality based upon a number of live-use scenarios.

Is mobile connectivity in a router important?

Routers are increasingly utilising mobile connectivity for both fixed location and mobile applications. For example, fixed location includes offices, retail outlets and homes, whereas mobile applications include the provision of Wi-Fi on trains, river cruises, motorhomes and caravans.

Mobile connections in fixed location applications are principally used as a fail-safe or back up, or where broadband wired connections are unattainable. 

Devices are available in a range of options, including dual SIM and dual Modem. This provides the ability to connect to multiple networks and to utilise more than one mobile network at the same time to increase bandwidth availability. 

This also clearly increases router resilience, but it is more expensive in terms of hardware.

Mobile applications are also utilised on trains and cruise ships as their primary method of providing connectivity for business applications and for providing paid for Wi-Fi to passengers.

These systems also sometimes utilise satellite uplinks, although they tend to be costly in terms of data rates.

While many may simply connect devices through their consumer phone/SIM card, others who are travelling to more difficult or remote locations desire multi-network connectivity or the assurance of an installed router/wi-fi which all devices can be connected to.

By using an IoT SIM, the data use can be more actively monitored and managed whether through a portal or app.

IoT Gateways and Mobile Connectivity

IoT Gateways also require mobile connectivity in both fixed and mobile applications. 

Fixed location use cases include building or home monitoring, medical monitoring or home wards, telecare, assisted living, building security systems, refrigeration monitoring, and environmental monitoring. 

Mobile applications can include cold-chain distribution systems and logistics systems, or security alarms, safety and environmental alarms.

Typical IoT devices used in either mobile or fixed-location cases include motion sensors, temperature and humidity sensors, fire alarms, Carbon Monoxide and Dioxide alarms, heat alarms, fall arms and emergency buttons.

One of the complexities of mobile IoT routers is understanding of the complexities of vehicle power scenarios and how to manage vehicle and gateway battery lives during different power up and power down cycles. This can involve power spikes which can damage devices, or down-times which are beyond the capabilities of battery capacities or UPS devices. 

For fixed locations, IoT gateways used in mission critical applications, such as telecare, may also need to conform with telecare standards which can require battery back-up for as long as 8 hours in the event of a power failure.

Given that IoT gateways need to continue to communicate in a range of installations and scenarios, utilising mobile IoT connectivity either as the primary or fail-safe connectivity option is an attractive choice.

It can also mean that IoT gateways might consume less power when it becomes unavailable and that is the main in-built connectivity option. Gateway populations can also be moved around more freely as the needs of buildings and users change, without the need to reinstall fixed line connections or interrupt a third party or host building fabric or decorative finishes.

Despite these challenges, the uses of cellular enabled IoT Gateways are increasing, with research affirming over 4 million gateways being delivered in 2021, with this forecast to grow to over 7 million by 2025.

Seamless connection with routers and IoT gateways

Routers and IoT gateways are manufactured by OEM manufacturers for a variety of clients and use cases. The firmware logic that manages and controls the router or IoT gateway hardware will also manage their communications.

This might include configuration changes that are available through a remote management system or portal. The methods that their firmware and configuration enable routers/gateways to select their method of communication is key.

The ability to securely tunnel or use Fixed IP VPN for changing parameters or updating firmware is also vital to ongoing security and resilience. The capability to initiate or perform power cycles or tasks can also reduce maintenance visits.

Using mobile/GSM/Cellular connectivity can not only provide these secure methods of connection, but it can also mean that devices are still contactable when the fixed line communications are interrupted or cut.

It can also mean that they are contactable and actionable in the event of a power failure, provided it is within the window of battery or UPS back-up.

Uncover IoT’s Potential with Caburn Telecom

Thank you for reading our post on IoT routers and mobile connectivity. 

The world of IoT is a big one that covers every walk of life, from healthcare and policing to smart cities.

To learn more about the potential of IoT and IoT SIM cards, contact a member of the Caburn Telecom team today. We’d be happy to talk with you, so don’t hesitate.